Do you know how much intelligent are the parrots? Why imitate human speech? What gives them a long life? – This are just some of the questions that scientists ask when they meet with parrots
Its beauty and unusual abilities for thousands of years conquering people. They have taken the noticeable place on the oldest cave drawings, the first verses, legends, fables, and have feathered companion was a matter of prestige long before stabilized practice of keeping pets. In the twentieth century, when travel became more accessible and distant areas began to converge, these birds become one of the most common choices when buying a pet. However, at the end of the twentieth century, scientists began to intensively study the parrots, a time of significant discovery is upon us.
How intelligent are they? Why imitate human speech? What gives them a long life? – Are just some of the questions behind this red bird. Parrots are among those animals whose behavior most appropriate concept of man’s intelligence, but among scientists there are those who are metaphorically called “feathered apes”.
While the first studies animal intelligence focused on primates and some groups of mammals, birds, and animals that are at first glance too different from humans, were often the subject of such observations. But results of the few experiments were surprising, though often controversial, however, the phrase ‘bird brain’ lost insulting meaning and attention cognitive scientists began to precisely towards the birds.
Almost 400 species of parrot inhabiting different parts of the globe, specifically its southern hemisphere even though they lived in the distant past and in other parts of the world, and the differences in their natural characteristics and ways of life are reflected in the habits and abilities. On the other hand, there are significant differences in the characteristics of parrots that live in nature and pets out of the kennel, and researchers have a far greater amount of information obtained by monitoring those who live among the people.
It was noted that the parrots as pets is very attached to people, other birds, and in some cases even for dogs and cats. The cause lies in their social nature. In fact, the nature of almost all species of parrots living in the developed and complex groups and research with the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis of 2014 confirms that the birds remembered individuals from their flocks as well as interpersonal relationships.
The study, which included observation of wild monk parakeet in Argentina and imprisoned in Florida, it was found that among individuals there is a relationship which could be called friendship. According to Elizabeth Hobson, a biologist with the New Mexico State University, between two individuals to build strong ties when they are not motivated playback or search for food. The whole group, she said, is reminiscent of a school division in which the child the minute changing decision with whom they spend their time, depending on whether you want to eat, rest, play, learn, but also depending on the previously constructed relations with others.
In support of the developed social life going and news from 2015 when a team of researchers from the Department of Psychology at New York University in Oneonta noted that tiger yawn when they see that they do it and other individuals. This behavior is the first time observed in animals other than mammals, and of the past, been linked with empathy. Still not sure why yawning is transferred among female tiger, not whether it is a characteristic of other species of parrots, but this news has given a signal that the social life of parrots perhaps more interesting and complex than previously thought.
According to Leo Joseph, director of the Australian national collection of wildlife, the search for food is the parrots did a very social and intelligent animals. Fruit and especially seeds, which are located on their menu, they are very unreliable source of food. Sometimes it is necessary to fly long distances, and sometimes it is difficult to predict where the food is, the more efficient the search of lunch to go in a group, especially if there is indeed a system of communication. Leo Joseph argues that both the social and the nervous system parrot during evolution developed to enable them to share information is provided.
Parrots are among the few groups of animals that are able to learn vocal, or to listen, remember, and then imitating produce similar sounds. Timothy Wright of the Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, noticed that parrots that live in the wild imitate the voices of the members of his group. Various dialects allow them to more easily identify a bird belonging to their flock, with whom we should come together and who is better avoided. Parrots who grow up surrounded by people are not exposed to these sounds while imitating human speech or artificial sounds that are used and so fit into your environment.
To get food, parrots have improved their social life, or developed many skills and so more experiments showed that know how to use the tool. One of them was carried out at the Department of Cognitive Biology, University of Vienna, and it was noted that Cockatoo Figaro wand used to retrieve the object out of the cage. It is interesting that other parrots who are watching him, they began to imitate him even though he was not successful.
The same team from the University of Vienna, led by Alice Auersperg, checking the self-control of these birds by stendford MARSHMALLOW experiment. In the seventies he studied self-control children so they give one a sweet and instructions to get another one if it in a certain period of time do not eat. However, self-control is only one of the factors of this experiment, and play an important role and assessment of profit and trust in the one who sets the conditions of the game. All 14 birds in this experiment were waiting 80 seconds to get more favorite foods, and unlike children who were candy in her hands, parrots have their treats held in its beak and patiently waited.
By comparison parrot and children are not missed even when an experiment showed that African gray zako logically concludes by rejecting the wrong option and chooses the right. Not quite sure that this conclusion can be equated with man’s, but it is certain that it was not a coincidence because more birds several times acted the same. African gray zako is known as a species that attracts a lot of attention and bird lovers and scientists, a real star among them was Alex, with whom he Irene Peperbeg, a cognitive psychologist at Harvard, worked for 30 years.
According to assertions Irene Peperbeg, Alex had a very average vocabulary for one parrots, about 100 words, but is unable to identify 50 objects, colors, shapes, and to count and recognize relationships less – higher and the same – different. She even claims that this parrot had developed the concept of zero. The results of her research following separate opinions, and many would agree that the scientist too far to equate parrots and humans, but Alex’s behavior scientists certainly considered unusual, although it is not certain that it will ever be found the cause.