Sharks bring fear into people around the world, as to any other creature does not work.
Their fearsome appearance, size, combined with a hostile, alien environment seems to act as if it came out right from our worst nightmares. The sudden violence that accompanies a shark attack is a terrifying experience for the victim, or whether the shark actually monsters who like the taste of human flesh?
Why sharks attack?
“Ninety percent or more, shark attacks as the result of mistakes. They assume that something we’re not. “- Gary Adkison, diver.
Although a shark attack may seem mean and brutal, it is important to remember that sharks are not the evil which will be non-stop looking for people who would be attacked. They are animals that serve instincts, like all the others. As predators at the top of the food chain in the oceans, sharks are born to hunt and eat vast quantities of meat. The shark feeds on other marine animals, mainly fish, sea turtles, whales and sea lions or seals. People are not on her menu. In fact, people do not provide enough meat rich in fat for a shark that needs a lot of energy to run it their lot, muscular body.
If sharks are not interested in eating people, why do they attack us? The first clue can be found in the form in which most attacks occurring. In most cases, a shark bites a victim, remains a matter of seconds (possibly dragging the victim through the water or under the surface), and then leave. It is very rare that a shark took a few attacks in a row to be fed human sacrifice. Shark just a mistake in the assessment that the man something she normally eats. Once you taste the shark, she realized that it was not its usual food and then let go.
Shark confusion is easier to understand the once počenmo to look at things from their perspective. Many victims of the attack were surfers or people who use the boogie boards. Shark that swims beneath sees rough oval layout with arms and legs hanging and paddling. This is reminiscent of the sea lion (the main prey of a great white shark) or sea turtle (a common food for tiger sharks).
Shark’s sensory system
Attacks are also often occurred when people were fishing with spears in the waters of the ocean. Sharks draw means that sends a dying fish – smell blood in the water and electrical impulses emitted as the fish fights. Sharks register these signals using “Lorencini ampoulla”, a series of “detectors” shark nose underneath the skin. The vials were sensitive cells electricity which are associated with the surface through small tubes. Once the sharks arrive, becomes irritated and aggressive in the presence of so many foods. Hungry, excited shark can easily replace the men with their usual prey.
There are cases where the shark attacked as a result of aggression, not hunger. Very little is known about their behavior, but it is believed that some species, including the great white dominant behavior in front of other sharks. This behavior can be expressed “blow” in the nose, or bites that do not harm the shark. Unfortunately, when a shark tries to be dominant over another, these “gentle bites” can cause serious injury.
Sometimes the cause of shark attacks can easily determine – shark responds to human aggression. Some sharks, for example, even-fish that remain on the bottom of the ocean. For some reason, it gives rise to divers think that’s a good idea to withdraw them by the tail. Irritated sharks have learned that several divers holding hands k ‘itself. For this reason, statistics related to shark attacks is divided into provoked and other attacks.
“The matter related to a shark that has lifeless eyes. Black eyes. Like dolls. When it comes to get you, do not even live acts. Until bites and not rolled black eyes that turn white … “- Quint,” Jaws “.
There is rarely any warning. Surfer or a swimmer who paddles no idea that would happen. Sometimes the first indication that something is wrong is the fear on the face of a nearby friend. More often, the first sign of a sudden, massive stroke due to the sacrifice of throwing sharks. Great White are known to attack sea lions with such force that the entire jump out of the water with the victim in the mouth. In “Shark attacks” pregnant lifeguard Don Saumane recalls his experience, which occurred off the coast of Florida in 1993, “Shark me so hard hit that I had the feeling it was a truck. My first thought was that I was finished. “
Surfer Keni Daud was attacked by a great white shark off the coast of Oregon in 1979. He described the attack in his book “Surfing with the great white shark”: “I heard a muffled roar as the massive shark jaws shutter on my back, pressing ironing my breasts … the shark pulled me under the water, but she could not keep me because timber floating … I felt an enormous pressure on my chest and I heard shooting and shooting rib bottom planks. “
The attack occurred as is usual when a great white shark food sea lions from below, by a massive bite and dragging the victim below the surface. Then they allowed incapable victim floating in the water and bleed to death, returning after a meal a few minutes later. In the case of sharks Dauda did not complete the initial prey for surfboards, but she tried the next 20 seconds. “I felt absolutely helpless, when my whole body is raised above the water and then went right back to the surface.” Recalls Daud.
Over time, the shark is left Dauda and he has never seen. Although he was afraid that followed another attack as he paddled toward the shore, the shark swam not made a second attack. The shark was probably realized that surfer and ironing are not a good meal. Great white are actually very discerning when it comes to food – refusing to bite things that usually do not eat, such as floating corpses of sheep, after first try.
However, there are many types of sharks, but not every shark does not follow the same pattern. The circumstances may also change the form of the attack. Shark attacks in the deep sea water are usually not “hit and run” attacks. In this case, where the victims are usually those who survived the sinking ship or a plane crash, sharks surround the area. They then hit the victims who are outside the group or those who are already wounded before bite.
One of the most shark attacks occurred after the USS Indianapolis was sunk by Japanese torpedoes in the Pacific Ocean in 1945. A few days ago, it was necessary to find a rescuer brog, because the mission was so secret that no one reported the disappearance of the ship. When a Navy rescue ship arrived, only 317 people were still live on the nearly 1,000 who initially survived the sinking. Tiger sharks are to blame for most of the deaths.
Zambezi shark is also known for atypical behavior during the attack. In English carries the name bull shark – a shark bull, because of the tendency to persistently attack, hitting a target, circling, beating again and so non-stop. A fourteen year old girl who had recently been the victim of a fatal shark attack in Florida was struck by the sharks did not want to let go of her leg, even when the rescuers appeared. She continued to circle and attacks, by trying to undermine the other rescuers.
The consequences of the attack
“Shark I inflicted wound crescent that extends from the armpit to the middle of my left … Doctor Star stopped counting buckle when he got to 500.” – Ken Daud
The shark in the attack can cause extensive damage to man. In some cases, the first sting is strong enough to completely tear off a limb. The surgeons who operated on teenagers who surf in Australia described the loss of their legs as “like a guillotine.” The sharks can produce a force of 28,000 tons per square meter, measured at the top of the tooth. Large samples may be able to produce even greater power.
If sharks do not bite off the penis, it usually takes a big piece of meat, tearing muscles and bones. Ujed torso can result in broken ribs and fracturing another bone with the addition of a massive tear the skin. In some cases, this may expose internal organs and damage them. Fisherman Rodney Fox was opened from the shoulder to the hip by a great white in 1963 near Adelaide in Australia. He survived, although it was necessary 462 buckles and four hours of surgery to be saved.
However, victims of shark attacks usually do not die from sudden trauma. They usually bleed to death. It takes a few minutes to get the victim to shore, and even more time is needed to reach the emergency room. The difference between life and death often lies in whether there is someone who knows how to prevent massive blood loss, because every second counts. In the case of the boy who was attacked in 2005 in Florida, doctor and nurse on holiday they were on the beach and prevent the boy bled.
Surprisingly, one of the potential danger that lurks when swimming in the ocean can help the victims of the shark to survive. When someone is attacked in cold water, his or her body temperature drops dangerously low. A drop in temperature slows down bodily functions including blood loss. This can take place in the life of the victim for a longer period.
Once the victim gets medical care, there is another danger – infection. Shark jaws and ocean waters are not very clean. A shark bite certainly leaves some dangerous bacteria in the wound, which can be just as deadly as well as the prey. Fortunately, modern antibiotics help to protect the victims of these infections.
“It is said that the greatest danger from sharks lying in the warm tropical seas, but there are reports of shark attacks in very cold seas at high altitudes, such as fisherman at Wick in northern Scotland … who was bitten on the hand.” – Rodney Style “The sharks of the world.”
We have already mentioned the three most aggressive and dangerous shark species: the great white, tiger shark and zambezi. These species are the most dangerous for several reasons: they spread, are large enough that the man seen as prey, are strong enough to cause a fatal bite damage and at the top of the food chain, which means that instinctive fear of anything.
However, other types of sharks are completely innocent. Sand, hammerhead, and others are responsible for several attacks, while a third offense related to the lesser-known species such as the variety of coral sharks. In total, the Zambezi shark is perhaps the most dangerous kind because of its aggressive form of attack and the preferred habitat – shallow coastal waters.
Statistically, between 30 and 50 unprovoked shark attacks are reported each year worldwide, of which between 5 and 10 fatal. Florida is an American country where most attacks happen, with an average of 10 to 37 attacks per year since 1990. The United States first in the number of attacks in the world.
Most attacks occur is a few hundred meters from the coast, simply because that most people entering into the ocean. The number of attacks worldwide and in the US is increasing from year to year, from several similar reasons – more people are vacationing on the shores of the ocean and take part in activities. There are no indications that the sharks have become more aggressive.
State protection of marine mammals has led to an increase in population seals, sharks and the other on the west coast of the United States. All these animals are prey of the great white shark. As a result, areas near the coast of San Francisco – especially the cities were clearly occupied a vast population of mammals – are full of sharks. Most people do not need to know how to swim in areas where there are sharks because sharks were always close.
Although the attacks taking place in the restricted areas, sharks they travel huge distances and constantly expand their territory. Great white sharks in particular, do not have the problem of being in cold water – can be found even in the waters around Oregon or New England.
“It’s not often that a shark to become one of the people on the beach and to choose a victim among a group of people. On the other hand, the victims are often people who are suddenly left alone or are further from the coast than others. “- David H. Baldrige,” Shark Attack “.
Every year, the media attach great importance to the shark attacks. One consequence of so much attention is that we tend to consider a greater threat than it actually is. The same is the case with aviation accidents. Statistically, driving is far more dangerous than the flight. However, airline accidents are very rare and catastrophic. They end up on the front pages of newspapers and the image stays in our minds for a long time. As a result, overestimating the risk of flight.
When journalists or scholars offer actual statistics, it is sometimes wrong. For example, it is often said that it is more likely that you struck by lightning than to attack a shark. This statistic is based on the number of incidents that occur annually. However, anyone can be the lightning to hit when the storm. The chance of a shark attack you if you live in Serbia and do not spend your summer vacation on the shores of the ocean is zero. If you surf every day on the shores of Florida, the greater the chance that you will be a shark attack.
This does not mean that everyone who enters the water should be terrified possible sharks, but to people who swim and surf in the ocean must be aware of the danger posed by wild animals can pose. Learning about risk factors for shark attack can help reduce the chances of becoming the victim.